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AP Earopean History - Class Overview
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AP Earopean History - Syllabus
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2007/2008 Syllabus

Welcome to Advanced Placement European History. As you may know, advanced placement (AP) courses give students a chance to complete college-level courses while still in high school. Therefore, this course is considered the equivalent of a full-year, freshman college course in Western Civilization. AP European History is designed to prepare students for the AP European History Exam in May. Students who pass the exam with a 3 or better may earn college credits.

More than 14,000 high schools participate in AP and more that 4,000 colleges accept AP credit. Nationally, the College Entrance Examination Board offers 33 exams in 23 subject areas.

The primary textbook is Jackson Spielvogel’s Western Civilization, 6th edition, Belmont CA: Wadsworth 2006. Key references and readings will also come from R.R. Palmer, Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer, A History of the Modern World. New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 10th edition.

Historiography readings from various readers including: Davies, Norman. Europe History (HarperPerennial); and from Sherman, Dennis. Western Civilization: Sources, Images and Interpretations, Volumes I and II (McGraw-Hill) by Dennis Sherman


DBQ Choices: (C-5)
Machiavelli: Is It Better to Be Loved than Feared; The Extent of the Women’s’ Renaissance, if any; Witchcraft; The Black Death; Luther and the Ninety-Five Theses; King Louis XIV; The Bill of Rights; Shakespeare

Essays: (C-5)
(1). What were the characteristics of the Italian Renaissance and how did it differ from the Renaissance of the Twelfth Century?
(2). Discuss the major social changes of the Renaissance era. Were these changes actually a rejection of medieval trends? Why or why not?
(3). Discuss Italian renaissance humanism. What does the word humanism mean? Who were the humanists? What were their goals? Did they achieve them?
(4) What were the sources of discontent among the Catholic clergy on the eve of the Reformation? What were the manifestations of popular religious piety on the eve of the Reformation
(5) What impact did reformation doctrines have on the family, education, and popular religious practices?
(6) What were the contributions of the papacy, Council of Trent, and the Jesuits to the revival of Catholicism?
(7) What factors contributed to the successes of the West in the age of discovery or encounter?
(8) What role did private investment and initiative play in the development of European imperialism. Give specific examples.
(9) What were the economic and social problems that troubled Europe from 1560 to 1650? Do these problems constitute a “crisis”?
(10) Why have some historians labeled the Thirty Years’ War as the “last of the religious war,” while others have called it the “first modern war”? Which do you believe in the more accurate assessment?

Primary Source Readings Including: (C-3)
Castiglione, Machiavelli, Bruni, Botticelli, Donatello, Erasmus, More, Hobbes, Locke,
Art Days Lecture and slide Show: (C-4)
Italian Renaissance, Northern Renaissance, Mannerism


Unit I:
Introduction and the End of the Middle Ages (Week 1)

Unit II:
Renaissance (Week 2-3) (C-2)
General description of the Renaissance
The Making of renaissance Society
Economic Recover, Social Changes, Family
Is this a transitional period?
Recovery and rebirth
The making of a Renaissance society
Northern Europe verses Southern Italian Renaissance
Why Italy, anyway?
The five major states
Intellectual Renaissance
The artistic Renaissance
Art, architecture, literature, and science
Did women have a place?
The Church in the Renaissance
Heresy and Reform
Supplemental Reading: The Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli

Unit III:
Reformation and Religious Wars and New Monarchies (Week 2-3)
The European State in the Renaissance
French, English, Holy Roman Empire, Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire
Civil War in France
War in Germany
Thirty Years War
Peace of Westphalia
Christian or Northern Renaissance Humanism
Catholic Revival and Reform
Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany
Ulrich Zwingli
Council of Trent
The Spread of the Protestant Reformation
Radical Reformation: The Anabaptists
Edict of Nantes

Unit IV:
Europe and the World: New Encounters and the Age of Discovery (Week 4-5)
On the Brink of a New World
Motives and Means
Opening of the Atlantic
The Portuguese and Spanish Empires
New Rivals on the World Stage
The Slave Trade, The West in Southeast Asia, China, Japan, The Americas
Toward a World economy
The Growth of Commercial Capitalism
Overseas Trade and Colonies

Unit V:
State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century (Week 5-6)
Social Crises, War, and Rebellion
Witchcraft Craze
Thirty Years War
Rebellions: England, France, Spain
The Practice of Absolutism
Louis XIV
Limited Monarchy and Republics
The Flourishing of European Culture
Art and Theater


DBQ Choices:
Kepler and the Emerging Scientific Community; Galileo Invention; Newton’s Rules of Reasoning; Social Contract; The Rights of Women; Fall of the Bastille; Reign of Terror;
Frederick the Great and His Father; Poverty in France;
(1) What were the roots of the Scientific Revolution? How do you explain the emergence?
(2) What do we mean by the Newtonian world-machine? How did Newton arrive at the conception? What are the broader social, political, and cultural implications of viewing the entire universe as a machine?
(3) Discuss the major intellectual changes that led to the Enlightenment.
(4) What specific contributions did Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot make to the age of the Enlightenment? Compare and contrast their political ideas with Thomas Hobbes and Machiavelli.
(5) Imagine you are a philosophe serving Josephe II or Catherine the Great. What advice would you give him or her own the best way to rule Austria or Russia?
(6) What do we mean by the phrase “enlightened politics” and to what extent was politics “enlightened” in the European states of the eighteenth century?
(7) Discuss causes of the French Revolution. Do you think there is one cause that is more important than the others? Why or why not?
(8) Why did the French revolution enter a radical phase? What did the radical phase accomplish? What role did the Reign of Terror play in the Revolution?
Primary Source Readings Include:
Aristotle, Galileo, Descartes, Pascal, Smith, Voltaire, Hume, Pitt, Tennis Court Oath, Danton,
Art Days Lecture and Slide Show:
Baroque, Neoclassicism, Romanticism


Unit VI:
Toward a New Heaven and Earth: The Scientific Revolution (Week 7-8)
Causes of the Scientific Revolution
The Old Science and its Authors
Technological Innovations and Mathematics
Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy
Advances in Astronomy and Physics
Copernicus, Kepler, Brahe, Galileo, Newton
Advances in Medicine and Chemistry
Paracelsus, Vesalius, William Harvey, Chemistry
Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and New Kind of Humankind
The Scientific Method and the Spread of Scientific Knowledge
The Scientific Method
The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
Science and Religion

Unit VII:
An Age of Enlightenment: The Eighteenth Century (Week 9-10)
Enlightenment Thought Defined/Age of Reason
The Philosophes and Their ideas
The Social Environment of the Philosophes
Culture and Society
Art, Music, Literature
The High culture
Crime and punishment
Popular Culture
Religion and the Churches
The Institutional Church
Popular Religion in the Eighteenth Century

Unit VIII:
European States, International Wars, and Social Change: The Eighteenth Century (Week 11)
Enlightened Absolutism
Atlantic Seaboard States
Mediterranean World
Wars and Diplomacy
The War of Austrian Succession
The Seven Year’s War
European Armies and Warfare
Economic Expansion and Social Change
Growth of Populations
An Agricultural Revolution
New Methods of Finance
European Industry
The Social Order of the eighteenth Century
Peasants, Nobility, Inhabitants of Towns and Cities

Unit IX:
French Revolution (Week 12-14)
Causes: Long Term, Intermediate, Immediate
Social, Economic,
In the Beginning—the Start of the Era
The American Revolution
Background to the French Revolution
The French Revolution
Estates-General to a National Assembly
Destruction of the Old Regime
The Radical Revolution
Reaction and the Directory
Committee on Public Safety
Reign of Terror
The Age of Napoleon
The Rise of Napoleon
The Domestic Policies of emperor Napoleon
Napoleon’s empire and the European Response


DBQ Choices:
The Great Irish Famine; Child Labor; Garibaldi and Romantic; Bloody Sunday; Nationalism; Darwin and the Descent of Man; Bismarck and the Welfare of the Workers; The White Man’s Burden; The Black Man’s Burden
(1) Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain?
(2) Discuss and trace the role of the factory in the early Industrial Revolution. What made the factory system possible? What impact did it have on the lives of workers, especially on women and children?
(3) Discuss the Congress of Vienna. What did it try to accomplish in Europe? How well did it succeed in achieving its goals?
(4) What were the chief ideas associated with the ideology of “conservatism” in the first half of the nineteenth century? How were these ideas put into practice between 1815 and 1830? How has conservative ideology changed over the last century?
(5) Assess the accomplishments and failures of Louis Napoleon’s regime in terms of the impact his policies had on France.
(6) Evaluate the unification of Italy and Germany. How were the roles of Cavour and Bismarck in the unification of their countries similar? How were they different? What role did war and diplomacy play in the two unification movements?
(7) Explain what is meant by the “Second Industrial Revolution” and how it differed from the first revolution in industry. Discuss its impact on European society
(8) What do we mean by the term “mass society” and how was the growth of this mass society related to changes in the urban environment?
(9) Discuss philosophical thinking at the end of the nineteenth century. How did it differ from the philosophy of the romantics?
(10) Define Social Darwinism. How did this interpretation of human existence shape late nineteenth and early twentieth century European society? In what sections of modern society today do we see the persistence of this philosophy?
Primary Source Readings Include:
Stephenson, Malthus, Ricardo, Mill, Marx, Hegel, Darwin, Tennyson, Cook
Art Days Lecture and Slide Show:
Romanticism, Realism, Naturalism, Symbolism, Impressionism, Postimpressionism, Cubism, Expressionism, Social Realism, etc.


Unit X:
The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact on European Society (Week 15-17)
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
Causes and Development
Technological Changes
New Forms of Organization
The Spread of Industrialization
Limitations of Industrialization
Centers of Continental Industrialization
Inventions and Inventors
Development of Capitalism
The Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
The Growth of Cities
New Social Classes: The Industrial Middle Class
New Social Classes: Workers in the Industrial Age
Efforts at Change: The Workers
Efforts at Change: Reformers and Government

Unit XI:
Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815-1850 (Week 18)
The Conservative Order
The Peace Settlement
The Ideology of Conservatism
The Concert of Europe
The Ideologies of Change
Early Socialism
Revolution and Reform
Another French Revolution
Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy
Reform in Great Britain
The Revolutions of 1848
The Mood of Romanticism
The Characteristics of Romanticism
Romantic Poets
Romanticism in Art
Romanticism in Music
The Revival of Religion in the Age of Romanticism

Unit XII:
An Age of Nationalism and Realism, 1850-1871 (Week 19-20)
The France of Napoleon III
Louis Napoleon: Toward the Second Empire
Foreign Policy: The Mexican Adventure
Foreign Policy: The Crimean War
National Unification: Italy and Germany
Nation building and Reform: The National State in Mid-Century
The Austrian Empire: Dual Monarchy
Imperial Russia
Great Britain: The Victorian Age
Industrialization and the Marxist Response
Industrialization on the Continent
Marx and Marxism
The Age of Realism and Science and Culture
Charles Darwin and the Theory of Organic Evolution
Health Care Revolution
Science and the Study of Society
Realism in Literature
Realism in Literature

Unit XIII:
The Mass Society in an Age of Progress, 1871-1894 (Week 21)
The Growth of Industrial Prosperity
New products, markets and patterns
Women and Work
Organizing the Working Class
Emergence of Mass Society
Population growth
Transformation of Urban Environment
The role of Women
Mass leisure
The National State
The Growth of Political Democracy in Western Europe
Persistence of the Old Order in Central and Eastern Europe

Unit XIV:
An Age of Modernity, Anxiety, and Imperialism, 1894-1914 (Week 22)
Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments
Emergence of New Physics
Understanding of the Irrational
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
Attack on Christianity
Modernism in Literature, Art, Music
Women’s Rights
Jews in the European Nation State
The Transformation of Liberalism: Great Britain and Italy
Growing Tensions in Germany
Austria-Hungary: The Problem of the Nationalities
Industrialization and Revolution in Imperial Russia
The New Imperialism
Scramble for Africa
Imperialism in Asia
Responses and Results to Imperialism
International Rivalry and the Coming of WW I
The Bismarckian System


DBQ Choices:
The Excitement of War; The Reality of War: Trench Warfare; The Great Depression; Adolf Hitler’s Hatred of the Jews; Keynes; The Munich Conference; The Bombing of Civilians; Hiroshima and Nagasaki; The Truman Doctrine; The Cuban Missile Crisis; Gorbachev and Perestroika; Bosnia; Two Faces of War
(1) Discuss the causes of World War I: What were the major long-term causes of the war? How important were the decisions made by European statesmen during the Summer of 1914 in causing the war?
(2) Why is World War I the defining event of the twentieth century?
Primary Source Reading Include: Lenin, Stalin, Wilson, Hitler, Treaty of Versailles,
Art Days, Lecture and Slide Show: Nazi exhibitation of “Degenerate Art”; Soviet Art 1919-1930; Socialist realism; modernisms; postmodernisms
(3) The decade of the 1920s has been characterized as both an “age of anxiety” and a “period of hope.” Why?
(4) What were the causes of the Great Depression? How did the European nations respond to the Great Depression?
(5) Discuss the major steps taken by Hitler from 1933 to 1939 that ultimately led to war. Could Hitler have been prevented from plunging Europe into war?
(6) How do you account for the early successes of the Germans from 1939 to 1941? To what degree did Blitzkrieg play a role in these successes?
(7) What was the Cold War? What were the major turning points in its development through 1970?
(8) Discuss how the balance of power moved from Europe to the United States and the Soviet Union between 1945 and 1970.
(9) How and why did the Cold War end? Did anyone “win” this conflict? Who? Why?
(10) when, how, and why did the Soviet Union collapse?
Primary Source Readings Include:
Hitler, Lenin, Stalin, The Treaty of Versailles, Jung, Strategic Defense Initiative; Reagan; Nixon; Carter; Jean-Paul Sartre
Art Days Lecture and Slide Show:
Nazi exhibition of “Degenerate Art”; Soviet Art; 1919-1930; Socialist Realism; modernisms; postmodernism


Unit XV:
Beginning the Twentieth Century Crisis: War and Revolution (Week 23-24)
The Road to World War I
Internal Dissent
The Summer of 1914
The War
1914-1915: Illusions and Stalemate
1916-1917: The Great Slaughter
The Widening of the War
A New Kind of Warfare
The Home Front: The Impact of the Total War
War and Revolution
The Russian Revolution
Revolutionary Upheavals in Germany and Austria-Hungary
The Peace Settlement
Peace Aims
The Treaty of Versailles
The Other Peace Treaties

Unit XVI:
Search for Stability: Europe Between the Wars, 1919-1939 (Week 25-26)
The Uncertain Peace—Search for security
The French Policy of Coercion
The Great Depression
The Democratic States
Great Britain, France, The Scandinavian States, The United States, European States
Retreat from Democracy: The Authoritarian and Totalitarian States
Fascist Italy
Hitler and Nazi Germany
The Soviet Union
Authoritarianism in Europe
Mass Culture and Mass Leisure Between Wars

Unit XVII:
The Deepening of the European Crisis: World War II (Week 27-28)
Prelude to War (1933-1939)
The Role of Totalitarianism
The Treaty of Versailles
The Role of Hitler
The Diplomatic Revolution
The German Rearmament
Occupation of the Rhineland
New Alliances
The Path to War in Europe
The Path to War in Asia
Japanese Goals in East Asia
The Course of World War II
Hitler’s Attack on the West
The Problem of Britain
Invasion of the Soviet Union
The War in Asia
The Turning Point of the War (1942-1943)
Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Midway
The Last Years of the War
Allied and Soviet Advances and the Defeat of Japan
The New Order
The Nazi Empire
Resistance Movements
The Holocaust
The Home Front—the Mobilization of Peoples
Frontline civilians—city bombing
Aftermath of the War: Cold War

A New Western World and the Cold War, 1945-1973 (Week 29-30)
Development of the Cold War
Confrontation of the Super Powers
Disagreement Over Eastern Europe
The Truman Doctrine
The Marshall Plan
The American Policy of Containment
Contention Over Germany
New Military Alliances
Globalization of the Cold War
The Korean War
Escalation of the Cold War
Another Berlin Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis
The Vietnam War
Africa, Asia, Middle East
Recovery and Renewal in Europe
Stalin’s Policies
Khrushchev’s Rule
Albania and Yugoslavia
Upheaval in Eastern Europe
The Revival of Democracy and the Economy
France, West Germany, Great Britain, Italy
The Movement Toward Unity
Postwar Society and Culture in the Western World
Society of Consumers, Mass Leisure
Creation of the Welfare State
Women, Workforce, and Feminism
Permissive Society
Education and Student Revolt
Postwar Art and Literature
Revival of Religion
Explosion of Pop Culture

Exams and Quizzes

There will be both tests and quizzes as evaluation tools for this course. A minimum of two tests will be conducted each quarter on material from the textbook, supplemental readings, discussions, and lectures. A quiz will follow each chapter. The design of each exam will be multiple choice and essay questions. At times, take home exams will be issued as a means of providing students more time to evaluate complex issues. Tests will be worth 40% (weighted) of the students’ grade. Quizzes will be valued (weighted) at 30%. Students need to take exams and quizzes on time. AP European History is designed to prepare students for AP European History exam which will count as your final exam. Students missing exams/quizzes will have one school day after returning to class to make up the exam/quiz. For each day the student fails to make up the evaluation, the student will be docked by 25% of his/her grade. Homework and class participation will also be a part of the evaluation process. Students are responsible to coordinate with the teacher on all makeup tests/quizzes/homework.

Semester Exams and Class Participation

The course follows the school’s exam exemption policy (see student handbook). Students earn points by actively participating in class: students should take good notes, take an active leadership role in helping to explain concepts, problems, or answers to problems; students can engage in dialogues of historical significance; students should always be ready to address questions asked by the teacher—correct answers need not be the absolute standard, but the student should demonstrate that he/she has been following the discussion/lecture. Homework assignments: reading assignments, completing identification terms, and recopying notes. Notebook checks will be done every quarter to ensure students have proper notes. Homework will be evaluated and have a 10% grade value.

Grading Standards
Tests: 40%
Quizzes/Essays/DBQs/: 30%
Homework: 20%
Participation: 10%

Course Goals

Goals of this course include the ability to (C-1 through C4)
-- master a broad body of “relevant factual knowledge about European History from 1450 (we will cover material from 1300) to the present to highlight intellectual, cultural, political, diplomatic, social, and economic developments.” (C-2)
-- demonstrate an understanding of historical chronology.
-- use historical data to support an argument or position. (C-3)
-- differentiate between different schools of historical thought.
-- interpret and apply data from original documents, including cartoons, graphs, letters, maps, statistical data, works of art, pictorial material, etc.
-- effectively use analytical skills of evaluation, cause and effect, compare and contrast.
-- work effectively with others to produce products and solve problems
prepare for and successfully pass the Advanced Placement Exam.
-- demonstrate a command of “writing analytical and interpretive essays such as document-based questions (DBQ) and thematic essays.” (C-4,5)

Course Objectives

Knowledge of the way people have lived and the way events and ideas have shaped our lives helps us understand the world at present. As we grapple with some difficult questions in this course, I hope you will emerge with:

1. An enjoyment of--or at least some satisfaction with--the learning process itself
2. A broad knowledge of (the history) European history sufficient to feel prepared to take the Advance Placement exam in May 2008.
3. An appreciation of some of the political, economic, social, and intellectual cross- currents in the continent's rich history.
4. The acquisition of skills useful to an ongoing study of history and the social sciences.
5. An enhanced understanding, through the study of contemporary events, of the role that European nations still play in today's world.

Classroom Policies and Procedures

1. Attendance: Students will be on time and in their seats before the bell rings. Student restroom practices are given individually and on a “first come, first served” basis.

2. Students will follow the policies as identified in the Seton Catholic High School Handbook and the honor code that each student signed. Students will acknowledge that honor code on all written work, e.g. tests, quizzes, homework, projects, etc.

3. Students will be prepared for class. All reading and other assignments must be completed with due. Reading assignments are vital to learning the material assigned and to active class participation which is expected of all students. In addition, students must have their own books, pens, pencils, notebook, homework, and paper for class. Students will not be allowed to go to their lockers to retrieve their belongings once class has begun.

4. Late assignments will not be accepted unless the teacher pre-approves them. A late assignment (e.g. homework, essays, etc.) will result in 25% off for each day late.

5. Absent students must turn in work due within one day after return to school. Late work will be “docked” 25% for each late day. Students can check with the teacher on line, in-person at school, or by phone to confirm what work was missed. Moreover, students can check the class web site for all information regarding the class; students may not take class time to do this. This is the students’ responsibility. Sometimes, there are extenuating circumstances (e.g. extended absenteeism); accordingly, a make-up plan will be coordinated with the teacher, parent(s)/guardian(s), and student.

6. Students missing class due to scheduled field trips, mass, athletic events, or other scheduled events must turn in their work before they leave for the event. Assignments not turned in before scheduled events will be counted late and the work will be downgraded 25% for each day late.

7. Reading is expected of all students. Participation should be consistent, positive, and respectful during all class activities. Students are expected to lead class prayers throughout the year. Students may be required to lead the class in discussion of events/issues in the assigned chapter on an impromptu or assigned basis. Preparation and participation are key “operative” words as guidelines for the course.

8. I will edit on-line grades in a timely manner but at least weekly per school policy. Course assignments and results will be provided on line.

9. Each student is expected to behave with maturity and in accordance with the guidelines stated in the Seton High School Handbook. Negative behavior and comments will not be tolerated. Students are expected to:

a. Be on time and be in their assigned seats prior to the bell. b. Raise their hands to get the teacher’s attention.
c. Remain in their seats throughout the class unless otherwise instructed.
d. Treat each other and the teacher with respect.
e. Discuss topics, materials, homework, tests, quizzes, etc., in an appropriate manner. Wasting the class’s time with disruptive talk and/or actions will not be tolerated.
f. Allow one person to speak at a time during the class period. All students raising their hands will be given the opportunity to speak.
g. Remain with their class when moving on campus as a class.
g. Leave the class quietly to use the restroom. Do not walk in front of the teacher when the teacher is lecturing. Students will use the pass and will sign out and back in.

I am available before school by appointment and Monday through Friday from 3:00-3:30 P.M. in room E3. My voice mail number is (480) 963-1900, ext 3070. You may also contact me through e-mail at Tdarby@setonCHS.org. Please by sure to put your name in the subject line or I will not open it.